Silent Cries: A Record of Struggle and Survival in Western Myanmar

In this upcoming book, published by the University of Hawaii Press, I provide a journalistic record of a deep humanitarian crisis as the region suffered (and still suffers) through the pandemic, armed conflict, military suppression, and civil war, covering the period from September 2020 to March 2023. This collection of 31 articles focuses on the history of resistance in the western Myanmar state of Rakhine, and is newly written for the last chapter.

2023/72 “Responses to Humanitarian Needs in Western Myanmar after Cyclone Mocha” by Kyaw Hsan Hlaing

• Category 5-level Cyclone Mocha made landfall on 14 May 2023 in western Myanmar, killing more than 100 lives, causing significant damage and loss in many townships across Rakhine State, and leaving approximately 1.5 million people in urgent need of humanitarian aid.
• The State Administration Council (SAC) military regime restricted United Nations agencies in Myanmar and other aid organisations access to the cyclone-affected communities in Rakhine State. The United League of Arakan (ULA), the

2023/35 "Myanmar’s “Sham” Election Threatens the 2025 Goals of the Arakan Rebels" by Kyaw Hsan Hlaing

• After fighting the Myanmar military fiercely for two years, the Arakan Army had, by the end of 2020, established a parallel administration and military bases in Rakhine State. It seemed that “Arakan Dream 2020” was thus accomplished.
• While the relationship between the Rakhine political parties and the United League of Arakan/Arakan Army (ULA/AA) is not clear, the ULA/AA leadership seems to have much closer interactions with the Arakan National Party (ANP) than with the Arakan League of Democracy and Arakan Front Party.

Understanding the Arakan Army • Stimson Center

On February 1, 2023, the brutal military in Myanmar marked two years since its seizure of power from the civilian government in 2021. Since then, the country has been plagued by escalated civil war and political and economic turmoil. It is critical to end the military regime in Myanmar for all ethnic groups, especially the ethnic armed revolutionary groups taking the significant role of supporting and fighting alongside the resistance groups across the country.


This report was researched and written by a research team consisting of independent consultants Laura Haigh and Kyaw Hsan Hlaing. The research team was tasked with researching the impact of the coup on freedom of expression and civic space in Myanmar, analysing findings against international law, and developing recommendations for key stakeholders. The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of the member organisations of the PROTECT consortium.